Friday, June 17, 2016

Rick Roderick

Dr. Rick Roderick was a philosopher, educator, and lecturer.  He is best known for his lectures presented by The Teaching Company.  We will post a link to his website which is dedicated to exposing Roderick's work with The Teaching Company.  You will find a full biography and a quasi-CV.  

We highly recommend his lectures because they are representative of the philosophical process. They are not necessarily the most pedagogical in terms of teaching a history of philosophy in a traditional and systematic way.  However, they are indicative of a person who struggles to comprehend and understand the human condition and situation by engaging philosophers and their philosophies.  So, if you want to systematically learn philosophy, then these lectures are not appropriate for that.  If you want to watch someone lecture and try to engage with philosophers and their philosophies in an attempt to understand the human condition, then you may find these lectures very engaging.

Here is the link to Dr. Rick Roderick's Website:


The Ego and the Id by Sigmund Freud

Freud's place in philosophy is contested by many.  Some think that he should be exclusively in the psychology department, some think that he belongs to philosophy, and others think he should be in both.  Since this blog is dedicated to philosophical sources and citations, we have compiled a list of citations that are heavy on the philosophy piece of Freud's contributions.

Primary Sources:
1) Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id. Trans. Joan Riviere. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,1960. Print.

Secondary Sources:


1) Nue, Jerome, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Print.

2) Altman, Matthew C., and Cynthia D. Coe. The Fractured Self in Freud and German Philosophy. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2013. Print.

3) Cavell, Marcia. Becoming a Subject: Reflections in Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

4) Kramer, Peter D. Freud: Inventor of the Modern Mind. New York: Harper Perennial, 2009. Print.

5) Grunbaum, Adolf. The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Print.

6) MacIntyre, Alasdair C. The Unconscious: A Conceptual Analysis. New York: Routledge, 1958. Print.

Journal Articles:

1) Woody, Melvin J. "Dispensing with the Dynamic Conscious." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 9.2 (2002): 155-157. Web

2) Phillips, James. "Freud and the Cognitive Unconscious." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 20.3 (2013): 247-149. Web.

3) de Block, Andreas. "Freud as an 'Evolutionary Psychiatrist' and the Foundations of a Freudian Philosophy." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 12.4 (2005): 315-324. Web.

4) Morris, Katherine J. "We're All Mad Here." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 12.4 (2005): 331-333. Web.

5) Hinshelwood, R. D. "Emerging from Determinism." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 12.1 (2005): 79-81. Web.

6) Fairbairn, W. Ronald D. "A Critical Evaluation of Certain Basic Psycho-Analytical Conceptions." The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7.25 (1956): 49-60. Web.

7) Nobus, Dany. "That Obscure object of Psychoanalysis." Continental Philosophy Review 46.2 (2013): 163-187. Web. 

8) Lavine T. Z. "Internalization, Socialization, and Dialectic." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42.1 (1981): 91-110. Web.

9) Jones, David H. "Freud's Theory of Moral Conscience." Philosophy 41.155 (1966): 34-57. Web.

10) Furth, Hans G. "Psychoanalysis and Social Thought: The Endogenous Origin of Society." Political Psychology 13.1 (1992): 91-104. Web.

11) Gruenwald, Oskar. "The Myth of Id: A Touch of Modernity." Political Psychology 3.3/4 (1982): 111-139. Web.

12) Harriman, Philip L. "The Ancestry of Id." Journal of Clinical Psychology 8.4 (1952): 416-417. Web.

13) Tauber, Alfred I. "Freud without Oedipus: The Cognitive Unconscious." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 20.3 (2013): 231-241. Web.

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Law's Empire by Ronald Dworkin

Primary Sources:

1) Dworkin, Ronald. Law's Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986. Print.

Secondary Sources:


1) Cohen, Marshall. Ronald Dworkin and Contemporary Jurisprudence. London: Duckworth, 1984. Print.

2)  Ripstein, Arthur. Ronald Dworkin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.

3) Burley, Justine. Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies from Dworkin. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. Print.

Journal Articles:

1) Ekins, Richard. "Legislative Intent in Law's Empire." Ratio Juris 24.4 (2011): 435-460. Web.

2) Tutt, Andrew. "The Improbability of Positivism." Pace Law Review 34.2 (2014): 562-585. Web.

3) Goorden, Dean. "Dworkin and Phenomenology of the "Pre-Legal." Ratio Juris 25.3 (2012): 393-408. Web.

4) Leiter, Brain. "Explaining Theoretical Disagreement." University of Chicago Law Review 76.3 (2009): 1215-1250. Web.

5) Martinich, A. P. "Ideal Interpretation: The Theories of Zhu Xi and Ronald Dworkin." Philosophy East and West  60.1 (2010): 88-114. Web.

6) Dare, Tim. "Disagreeing about Disagreement in Law: The Argument from Theoretical Disagreement." Philosophical Topics 38.2 (2010): 1-15. Web.

7) Raz, Joseph. "Dworkin, a New Link in the Chain." California Law Review 74.3 (1986): 1103. Web.

8) Smith, Dale. "Theoretical Disagreement and the Semantic Sting." Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 30.1 (2010): 635. Web.

9) Leiter, Brian. "Beyond the Hart/Dworkin Debate: The Methodology Problem in Jurisprudence." American Journal of Jurisprudence 48.1 (2003): 17-51. Web.

10)  Finnis, John. "On Reason and Authority in Law's Empire." Law and Philosophy 6.1 (1987): 357-380. Web.

11) Mckie, J. L. "The Third Theory of Law." Philosophy and Public Affairs 7.1 (1977): 3-16. Web.

12) Alexander, Larry. "Striking Back at the Empire: A Brief Survey of Problems in Dworkin's Theory of Law." Law and Philosophy 6.3 (1987): 419-438. Web.

13) Lee, Win-Chiat. "Statutory Interpretation and the Counterfactual Test for Legislative Intention." Law and Philosophy 8.3 (1989): 383-404. Web.

14) Endicott, Timothy. "Are There Any Rules." The Journal of Ethics 5.3 (2001): 199-220. Web.

15) Ross, Stephen. "Law, Integrity, and Interpretation: Ronald Dworkin's Law's Empire." Metaphilosophy 22.3 (1991): 265-279. Web.

16) Silver, Charles. "Elmer's Case: A Legal Positivist Replies to Dworkin." Law and Philosophy 6.3 (1987): 381-399. Web.

17) Hoy, David C. "Dworkin's Constructive Optimism V. Deconstructive Legal Nihilism." Law and Philosophy 6.3 (1987): 321-356. Web.
18) Mahoney, Jon. "Objectivity, Interpretation, and Rights: A Critique of Dworkin." Law and Philosophy 23.2 (2004): 187-222. Web.


Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Being and Time by Martin Heidegger

Primary Sources:

1) Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Print.

2) Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. John Macquarrie, and Edward Robinson.  New York: Harper & Row, 1962. Print.

Secondary Sources:


1) Carman, Taylor. Heidegger's Analytic: Interpretation, Discourse and Authenticity in Being and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.

2) Gorner, Paul. Heidegger's Being and Time: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.

3) Dreyfus, Herbert L. Being-in-the-World: A commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division 1. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990. Print.

4) Gelven, Michael. A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time. De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989. Print.

5) Kisiel, Theodore. The Genesis of Heidegger's Being and Time. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Print.

6) Mulhall, Stephen. The Routledge Guidebook to Heidegger's Being and Time. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

7) Edward, Paul. Heidegger's Confusions. New York: Prometheus, 2004. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Journal Articles:

1)  Schalow, Frank. "The Unique Role of Logic in the Development of Heidegger's Dialogue with Kant." Journal of the History of Philosophy 32.1 (1994): 103-125. Web.

2) Dostal, Robert J. "Beyond Being." Journal of the History of Philosophy 23.1 (1985): 71-98. Web.

3) Guignon, Charles. "The Body, Bodily Feelings, and Existential Feelings: A Heideggerian Perspective." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 16.2 (2009): 195-199. Web.

4) Nissim-Sabat, Marilyn. "Phenomenology and Mental Disorders: Heidegger or Husserl?" Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 6.2 (1999): 101-104. Web.

5) Eiland, Howard. "The Way to Nearness: Heidegger's Interpretation of Presence." Philosophy and Literature 8.1 (1984): 43-54. Web.

6) Holy-Luczaj, Magdalena. "Heidegger's Support for Deep Ecology Reexamined Once Again: Ontological Egalitarianism, or Farewell to the Great Chain of Being." Ethics & the Environment 20.1 (2015):45-66. Web.

7) Crowell, Stephen G. "Metaphysics, Metontology, and the End of Being and Time." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60.2 (2000): 307-331. Web.

8) Wild, John. "Being and time: A Reply."  The Review of Metaphysics 17.4 (1964): 610-616. Web.

9) Millikan, James. "Wild's Review of Being and Time. The Review of Metaphysics 16.4 (1963): 780-785. Web.

10) Brandom, Robert. "Heidegger's Categories in Being and Time." The Monist 66.3 (1983): 387-409. Web.

11) Blattner, William D. "Existence and Self-Understanding in Being and Time." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56.1 (1996): 97-110. Web.

12) Fynsk, Christopher. "The Self and Its Witness; On Heidegger's Being and Time." boundary 2 10.3 (1982): 185-207. Web.

13) Rubio, Robert, and Felipe Fernandez. "Heidegger's Ontology of Life before Being and Time." The New Centennial Review 10.3 (2010): 65-78. Web.

14) Christensen, C. B. "Heidegger's Representationalism." The Review of Metaphysics 51.1 (1997): 77-103. Web.

15) Christensen, C. B. "Getting Heidegger Off the West Coast." Inquiry 41.1 (1998): 65-87. Web.

16) Edward, Paul. "Heidegger and Death as a Possibility." Mind 84.1 (1975): 546-566. Web.

17) Edward, Pual. "Heidegger and Death: A Deflationary Critique." The Monist 59.1 (1976): 161-186. Web.

18) Haugeland, John. "Reading Brandom Reading Heidegger." European Journal of Philosophy 13.3 (2005): 421-428. Web.

Videos: We have accumulated too many videos to list here.  Please follow the link below to find a playlist with video's pertaining to Heidegger's philosophy.

Thursday, June 9, 2016

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Marry Wollstonecraft

Primary Sources:

1) Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. New York: Dover, 1996. Print.

2) This following link is to a free audio version of this book provided by LibriVox.  The content on this website is in the public domain in the USA.  Please check with your local laws before downloading.

3) Wollstonecraft, Mary. "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman." Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg, 2001. Web.

4) Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and A Vindication of the Rights of Men. Ed. Janet Todd. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Secondary Sources:


1) Sandrine, Berges. The Routledge Guidebook to Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.

2) Johnson, Claudia L., ed. Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.

3) Todd, Janet. Mary Wollstonecraft: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1976. Print.

4) Falco, Maria J., ed. Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1996. Print.

5) O'Neill, Daniel I. The Burke-Wollstonecraft Debate: Savagery, Civilization, and Democracy. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 2012. Print.

6) Sapiro, Virginia. A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Print.

7) Taylor, Barbara. Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.

Journal Articles:

1) Kerry, Paul E. "Mary Wollstonecraft on Reason, Marriage, Family Life, and the Development of Virtue in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman." BYU Journal of Public Law 30.1 (2015): 1-40. Web.

2) Jacobs-Beck, Kim. "Dissenting Homiletics in Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman." Interdisciplinary Humanities 29.2 (2012): 62-79. Web.

3) Edelman-Young, Diana. "Chubby Cheeks and the Bloated Monster: The Politics of Reproduction in Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication." European Romantic Review 25.6 (2014): 683-704. Web.

4) Abbey, Ruth. "Back to the Future: Marriage as Friendship in the Thought of Mary Wollstonecraft." Hypatia 14.3 (1999): 78-95. Web.

5) Ferguson, Moira. "Mary Wollstonecraft and the Problematic of Slavery." Feminist Review 42.1 (1992): 82-102. Web.

6) McKenzie, Catriona. "Reason and Sensibility: The Ideal of Women's Self-Governance in the Writings of Mary Wollstonecraft." Hypatia 8.4 (1993): 35-55. Web.

7) Wilcox, Kristin R. "Vindicating Paradoxes: Mary Wollstonecraft's "Woman." Studies in Romanticism 48.3 (2009): 447-467. Web.

8) Halldenhus, Lena. "The Primacy of Right. On the Triad of Liberty, Equality and Virtue in Wollstonecraft's Political Thought." British Journal for the History of Ideas 15.1 (2007): 75-99. Web.

9) Kitts, S. "Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: A Judicious Response from Eighteenth-Century Spain." Modern Langauge Review 89.2 (1994): 351-359. Web.

10) Mallory-Kani, Amy. "A Healthy State: Mary Wollstonecraft's Medico-Politics." The Eighteenth Century 56.1 (2015): 21-40. Web.


1) The following link is to the BBC podcast In Our Time.  This particular episode is about Mary Wollstonecraft, her life, and ideas.


1) This is a lecture given by Jill Fellows.  It is an introductory lecture to Wollstonecraft's life and ideas.

2) This is a five-part lecture series given by Dr. Gregory Sadler.  He explores Wollstonecraft's ideas in detail.  Anyone from the novice to the advanced would appreciate these lectures.  

3) This a one-time lecture on Wollstonecraft by Dr. Sadler.  He discusses her life and ideas but not in as much depth as the preceding lecture series.  It is still valuable, though.

4) This is a talk given by Lyndall Gordon.  The video's description best explains the content of this lecture by indicating that "Gordon discusses how this independent, compassionate woman who devised a blueprint for human change achieved that distinction." 

5) This two-part lecture given by Professor Helen Irving discusses the life and work of Wollstonecraft.  This is another introductory lecture about Wollstonecraft's life and ideas.  It does not go into much depth about Wollstonecraft's ideas but does a sufficient job of hitting the major points.

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume

Primary Sources:

1) Hume, David. Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principle of Morals. Ed. L.A. Selby-Bigge and P.H. Nidditch. 3rd. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. Print.

2) Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: And Other Writings. Ed. Stephen
Buckle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.

3) Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: And Other Writings. Ed. Peter Millican. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.

4)  Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: And Other Writings. Ed. Tom L. Beauchamp. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.

5) Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: with Hume's Abstract of A Treatise of Human Nature and A Letter from a Gentleman to His Friend in Edinburgh. Ed. Eric Steinberg. 2nd. ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1993. Print.

6) Hume, David. "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding." Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg, November 15, 2011. Web.

7) Librivox has an audiobook free for downloading in the USA.  Check your local laws to make sure you are not violating them by downloading this if outside the USA.

Secondary Sources:


1) Buckle, Stephen. Hume's Enlightenment Tract: The Unity and Purpose of An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print. 

2) Millican, Peter., ed. Reading Hume on Human Understanding: Essays on the First Enquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

3) Holden, Thomas. Spectres of False Divinity: Hume's Moral Atheism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.

4) Owen, David. Hume's Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

5) Russell, Paul. Freedom and Moral Sentiment: Hume's Way of Naturalizing Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

6) Read, Rupert, and Kenneth A. Richman., ed. " The New Hume Debate: Revised Edition. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

7) Stroud, Barry. Hume (Arguments of the Philosophers). London: Routledge, 1977. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Journal Articles:

An excellent source for secondary journal articles on all things related to David Hume can be located in the journal "Hume Studies."  The ISSN for this journal is 0319-7336.  The Hume Society, which holds the rights to this journal, has graciously made available, free for public consumption, several volumes from the years 2005-2009.  Click the link below to view these volumes for free.

More journal articles not available in the free volumes linked above.

1) Fields, Lloyd. "Hume on Responsibility." Hume Studies 14.1 (1988): 161-175. Web.

2) Fogelin, Robert J. "What Hume Actually Said About Miracles." Hume Studies 16.1 (1990): 81-86. Web.

3) Immerwahr, John. "Hume's Dissertation on the Passions." Journal of the History of Philosophy 32.2 (1994): 225-240. Web.

4) Kuehn, Manfred. "Kant's Conception of "Hume's Problem." Journal of the History of Philosophy 21.2 (1983): 175-193. Web.

5) Bunzl, Martin. "Humean Counterfactuals." Journal of the History of Philosophy 20.2 (1982): 171-177. Web.

6) Buckle, Stephen. "Hume's Preference for the Enquiry: A Reply to Miller." British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21.6 (2013): 1219-1229. Web.

7) Miller, Jon C. "A Treatise vs. An Enquiry: Omissions and Distortions by the New Humeans." British Journal of Philosophy 20.5 (2012): 1015-1026. Web.

8) Millican, Peter. "Hume, Causal Realism, and Causal Science." Mind 118.471 (2009): 647-712. Web.

9) Hill, James. "How Hume Became the "New Hume": A Development Approach." The Journal of Scottish Philosophy 10.2 (2012): 163-181. Web.

10) Wright, John P. "Scepticism, Causal Science and "The Old Hume." The Journal of Scottish Philosophy 10.2 (2012): 123-142. Web.

11) Hakkarainen, Jani. "Why Hume Cannot be a Realist." The Journal of Scottish Philosophy 10.2 (2012): 143-161. Web.


1) The following link will take you to the BBC sponsored podcast "In Our Time."  This particular one is dedicated to David Hume.

2) The following link will take you to The Partially Examined Life podcast about David Hume. There is a 30:51 snippet of this podcast.  If one wants to listen to the entire thing, then a subscription may be required.

***Click here to go to the podcast on David Hume


1) This video lecture series is presented by Dan Robinson of Oxford.  He examines Hume's philosophical enquiries through the critiques of Thomas Reid.  This series is kind of a two for one, in that, we are presented with Reid's views as well as Hume.  In any event, the series is valuable for all levels.

2) An introductory overview of Hume's philosophy.  This series does not go into any significant depth, however.  So, this series is best viewed by the novice who has had no prior knowledge about Hume's ideas.

3) This lecture series is presented by Peter Millican of Oxford.  This series provides an overview of Hume's philosophy without sacrificing depth.  This series is worthwhile for people with previous engagement with Hume or for the novice who is picking it up for the first time.

***Click here to go to this lecture series

Monday, June 6, 2016

The History of Sexuality by Michel Foucault

As with our post on "Discipline and Punish" (which can be found by clicking this link), we have included a wide range of sources from multiple disciplines because his influence reaches beyond any one discipline.

Primary Sources:

1) Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Random House Inc., 1990. Print.

2) Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, Volume 2: The Use of Pleasure. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Random House Inc., 1990. Print.

3) Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, Volume 3: The Care of the Self. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Random House Inc., 1988. Print.

Secondary Sources:


1) Huffer, Lynn. Mad for Foucault: Rethinking the Foundations of Queer Theory. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

2) Spencer, Scott, Helmut Puff , and Dagmar Herzog. Eds. After The History of Sexuality: German Genealogies with and Beyond Foucault. New York: Berghahn Books, 2012. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

3) Lamour, David H. J., Paul Allen Miller, and Charles Platter. Rethinking Sexuality: Foucault and Classical Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Journal Articles:

1) Boyarin, Daniel, and Elizabeth A. Castelli. "Introduction: Foucault's The History of Sexuality" The Fourth Volume, or, A Field Left Fallow of Others to Till." Journal of the History of Sexuality 10.3/4 (2001): 357-374. Web.

2) Jordan, Mark A. "Touching and Acting, or the Closet of Abjection." Journal of the History of Sexuality 10.2 (2001) 180-184. Web.

3) Ball, Kelly H. "More or Less Raped": Foucault, Causality, and Feminist Critiques of Sexual Violence." philoSOPHIA 3.1 (2013): 52-68. Web.

4) Rehn-DeBraal, Merritt. "Translating Foucault: A Critique of Sexuality for Trauma Survivors." philoSOPHIA 3.1 (2013): 69-83. Web.

5) Hengehold, Laura. "Lynn Huffer's Mad for Foucault: An Analysis of Historical Eros." philoSOPHIA 1.2 (2011): 226-238. Web.

6) Tell, David. "Rhetoric and Power: An Inquiry into Foucault's Critique of Confession." Philosophy and Rhetoric 43.2 (2010): 95-117. Web.

7) Dunn, Jennifer, and Vik Tennley. "Virginity for Sale: A Foucauldian Moment in the History of Sexuality." Sexuality & Culture 18.3 (2014): 487-504. Web.

8) Ehlers, Nadine. "Onerous Passions: Colonial Anti:Miscegenation Rhetoric and The History of Sexuality." Patterns of Prejudice (2011): 45.4. Web.

9) Elden, Stuart. "The Problem of Confession: The Production Failure of Foucault's History of Sexuality." Journal for Cultural Research 9.1 (2005): 23-41. Web.

10) Halperin, David M. "Is There a History of Sexuality?" History and Theory 28.3 (1989): 257-274. Web.

11) Dean, Carolyn J. "The Productive Hypothesis: Foucault, Gender, and The History of Sexuality." History and Theory 33.3 (1994): 271-296. Web.

12) Lochrie, Karma. "Desiring Foucault." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 27.1 (1997): 3-16. Web.

13) Berard, T.J. "Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, and the Reformation of Social Theory." Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior 29.3 (1999): 203-227. Web.


1) Lecture by Christina Hendricks.  A good introduction to this book.  She situates this work historically and hits on all the major points.

2) A talk on Foucault at a conference held by Hofstra Universtiy.  The speaker does a good job a discussing Foucault's work and its implications.

Friday, June 3, 2016

The Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant

We are compiling sources for Kant's "Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals," and "The Metaphysics of Morals," and "The Critique of Practical Reason" in one post because their subject matters are intimately related to one another.  One would be wise to study them together.

Primary Sources:

The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals:

1) Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Mary Gregor and Jens Timmermann. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print.

2)  Kant, Immanuel. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. James W. Ellington. 3rd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1993. Print.

3) Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Allen W. Wood. New York: Yale University Press, 2002. Print.

5) Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A German-English Edition. Trans. Mary Gregor and Jens Timmermann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.

The Metaphysics of Morals:

1) Kant, Immanuel. The Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Mary Gregor. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

The Critique of Practical Reason:

1) Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason. Trans. Mary Gregor. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Print.

2) Kant, Immanuel. Practical Philosophy (The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant). Trans. Mary J. Gregor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

3) Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason. Trans. T. K. Abbott. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1996. Print.

5) Kant, Immanuel. "The Critique of Practical Reason." Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg. Web. 

6) Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason. Trans. Abbott Thomas Kingsmill. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 2004

Secondary Sources:


1) Reath, Andrews., and Jens Timmermann, eds. Kant's Critique of Practical Reason (A Critical Guide). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

2) Wood, Allen. Kant's Ethical Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print.

3) Korsgaard, Christine. Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print,

4) O'Neill, Onora. Constructions of Reason: Exploration of Kant's Practical Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1990. Print.

5) Allison, Henry. Kant's Theory of Freedom. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.

6) Aune, Bruce. Kant's theory of Morals. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. Print.

7) Beck, Lewis W. A Commentary on Kant's "Critique of Practical Reason." Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. Print.

8) Herman, Barbara. The Practice of Moral Judgment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. Print.

9) Wood, Allen. Kant's Moral Religion. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970. Print.

10) Sullivan, Roger J. Immanuel Kant's Moral Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Print.

11) Timmons, Mark, ed. Kant's Metaphysics of Morals (Interpretive Essays). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

Journal Articles:

1) Rumsey, Jean P. "The Development of Character in Kantian Moral Theory." Journal of the History of Philosophy 27.2 (1989): 247-265. Web.

2) McCarty, Richard R. "Kantian Moral Motivation and the Feeling of Respect." Journal of the History of Philosophy 31.3 (1993): 421-435. Web.

3)  Ameriks, Karl. "Kant's Deduction of Freedom and Morality." Journal of the History of Philosophy 22.3 (1984): 325-342. Web.

4) Friedman, R. Z. "The Importance and Function of Kant's Highest Good." Journal of the History of Philosophy 22.3 (1984): 325-342. Web.

5) Reath, Andrews. "Two Conceptions of the Highest Good in Kant." Journal of the History of Philosophy 26.4 (1988): 593-619. Web.

6) Darwall, Stephen. "Kantian Practical Reason Defended." Ethics 96.1 (1985): 89-99. Web.

7) Darwall, Stephen. "Two Kinds of Respect." Ethics 88.1 (1977): 36-49. Web.

8) Engstrom, Stephen. "The Concept of the Highest Good in Kant's Moral Philosophy." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51.4 (1992): 747-780. Web.

9) Foot, Philippa. "Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives." The Philosophical Review 81.3 (1972): 305-316. Web.

10) Rauscher, Frederick. "Kant's Moral Anti-Realism." Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 (2002): 477-499. Web.

11) Sedgwick, Sally S. "Hegel's Critique of the Subjective Idealism of Kant's Ethics." Journal of History of Philosophy 26.1 (1988): 89-105. Web.

12) Guyer, Paul. "Passion for Reason: Hume, Kant, and the Motivation for Morality." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 86.2 (2012): 4-21. Web.

13) Timmons, Mark. "Necessitation and Justification in Kant's Ethics." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22.2 (1992): 223-261. Web.

14) Silber, john R. "The Moral Good and the Natural Good in Kant's Ethics." The Review of Metaphysics 36.2 (1982): 397-437. Web.

15) Westphal, Kenneth R. "How "Full" is Kant's Categorical Imperative." Jahrbuch fur Recht und Ethik / Annual Review of Law and Ethics 3.1 (1995): 465-509. Web.

16) Singer, Marcus G. "The Categorical Imperative." The Philosophical Review 63.4 (1954): 577-591. Web.

17) Kitcher, Patricia. "Kant's Argument for the Categorical Imperative." Nous 38.4 (2004): 555-584. Web.

18) Rickless, Samuel C. "From the Good Will to the Formula of Universal Law." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68.3 (2004): 554-577. Web.


1)  We have created a YouTube playlist with over 24 valuable videos on Kant's practical philosophy.  

***Note: we are always looking for and adding other videos.  So, this list of videos, which can be found above, is not exhaustive. 

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

The Paradox of Horror and Tragedy

We have compiled a list of sources pertaining to both the paradox of horror and the paradox of tragedy since they are closely related to one another.


Carroll, Noel.  "Why Horror?" Arguing about Art. Ed. Neil, Alex., and Aaron Ridley. New York: Routledge, 2008. 297-316. Print.

Gaut, Berys. "The Paradox of Horror." Arguing about Art. Ed. Alex Neil, and Aaron Ridley. New York: Routledge, 2008. 317-329. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Aristotle, Poetics. Trans. Joe Sachs. Newburyport: Focus Publishing, 2006, Print.

Hume, David. Essays: Moral, Political, Literary. New York: Cosimo, 2006. Print.

Carroll, Noel. The Philosophy of Horror: Or Paradoxes of the Heart. New York: Routledge, 1991. Print.

Nussbaum, Martha C. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2001. Print.

Lovecraft, H.P., and Everett F. Bleiler. Supernatural Horror in Literature. New York: Dover Publication, 1973. Print.

Heller, Terry. The Delights of Terror: An Aesthetics of the Tale of Terror. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987. Print.

Shaw, Daniel, and Steven Schneider J. Dark Thoughts: Philosophical Reflections on Cinematic Horror. Lanham: The Scarecrow Press, 2003. Print.

Walton, Kendall. Mimesis as Make-Believe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990. Print.

Journal Articles:

Carroll, Noel. "Disgust or Fascination : A Response to Susan Feagin." Philosophical Studies 65.1 (1992): 85-90. Web.

Carroll, Noel. "Enjoying Horror Fictions: A reply to Gaut." British Journal of Aesthetics 35.1 (1995): 67-72. Web.

Carroll, Noel. "Horror, Helplessness, and Vulnerability: A reply to Robert Solomon. Philosophy and Literature 17.1 (1993): 110-118. Web.

Dadlez, E. M. "Pleased andAfflictedd: Hume on the Paradox of Tragic Pleasure." Hume Studies 30.2 (2004): 213-236. Web.

Eaton, Marcia. "A Strange Kind of Sadness." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 41.1 (1982): 51-63. Web.

Gaut, Berys. "The Enjoyment Theory of Horror: A Response to Carroll." British Journal of Aesthetics 35.3 (1995): 284-289. Web.

Griffin, Drew E. "Nietzsche on Tragedy and Parody." Philosophy and Literature 18.2 (1994): 339-347. Web.

Iseminger, Gary. "How Strange a Sadness?." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 42.1 (1983): 81-82. Web.

Levinson, Jerrold. "Music and Negative Emotion." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 63.1 (1982): 327-346. Web.

Morreall, John. "Enjoying Negative Emotions in Fictions." Philosophy and Literature 9.1 (1985): 95-103. Web.

Markowitz, Sally. "Guilty Pleasures: Aesthetic Meta-Response and Fiction." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50.1 (1992): 307-316. Web.

Neill, Alex. "On a Paradox of the Heart." Philosophical Studies 65.1 (1992): 53-65. Web.

Neil, Alex. "An Unaccountable Pleasure": Hume on Tragedy and the Passions." Hume Studies 24.2 (1998):335-354. Web.

Packer, Mark. "Dissolving the Paradox of Tragedy." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47.1 (1989): 212-219. Web.

Shapshay, Sandra. "The Problem with the Problem of Tragedy : Schopenhauer’s Solution Revisited." British Journal of Aesthetics, 52.1: (2012): 17-32.

Schier, Flint. "The Claims of Tragedy: An Essay in Moral Psychology and Aesthetic Theory." Philosophical Papers 18.1 (1989): 7-26. Web.

Smuts, Aaron. "The Paradox of Painful Art." The Journal of Aesthetic Education 41.3 (2007): 59-76. Web.

Solomon, Robert S. "The Philosophy of Horror, Or Paradoxes of the Heart (Review)." Philosophy and Literature 16.1 (1992): 163-173. Web.

Williams, Christopher. "Is Tragedy Paradoxical." British Journal of Aesthetics 38.1 (1998): 47-62. Web.

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Discipline and Punish by Michel Foucault

Note: Since Foucault was an interdisciplinary thinker and has had an interdisciplinary impact, we are doing something different with this particular post.  As a result, this post will not be an exclusively philosophical one.  There will be secondary sources posted from other disciplines as well.

Primary Sources:

1) Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New
York; Random House, 1977. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

2) Rabinow, Paul., ed. The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Note: this book contains selections from Foucault's various primary texts.

Secondary Sources:


1) Schwan, Anne, and Stephen Shapiro. How to Read Foucault's Discipline and Punish (How to Read Theory). London: PlutoPress, 2011. Print.

2) Rusche, Georg, and Otto Kirchheimer. Punishment and Social Structure (Law and Society). New York: Russell and Russel, 1968. Print. 

3) Armstrong, Timothy J., ed. Michel Foucault, Philosopher. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992. Print.

Note: this is an anthology with multiple valuable sources discussing Foucault's works and insights.

4) Bidet, Jacques. Foucault with Marx. Trans. Steven Corcoran. London: Zed Books, 2016. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

5) O'Leary, Timothy, and Christopher Falzon. eds. Foucault and Philosophy. Southern Gate: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Note: This is a collection of essays that cut across various factions of Foucault's thought.

6) Heyes, Cressida J. Self-Transformations: Foucault, Ethics, and Normalized Bodies. Oxford: Oxford Univerity Press, 2007. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book.

Journal Articles:

1) Alford, Fred C. "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years." Theory and Society 29.1 (2000): 125-146. Web.

2) Heilker, Paul. "Discipline and Punish and Process and Paradigms (or Foucault, Visibility, (Dis) Empowerment, and the Construction of Composition Studies." Composition Studies 22.1 (1994): 4-13. Web.

3) Rhodes, Lorna A. "Toward An Anthropology of Prisons." Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (2001): 65-83. Web.

4) Frank, Arthur W. "The politics of the New Positivity: A review Essay of Michel Foucault's "Discipline and Punish." Human Studies 5.1 (1982) 61-67. Web.


1) This video is by Christina Hendricks of the University of British Colombia.  It is an introduction to "Discipline and Punish."  She does go into the text and discuss certain passages and key ideas; however, the lecture is best suited for those who are beginning their studies of Foucault.

2)  This video is not directly related to "Discipline and Punish."  It is a debate between Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault.  We have added it here because Foucault touches on a lot of his ideas that are articulated in "Discipline and Punish" as well as elsewhere in his texts.

3) This is a podcast from The Partially Examined Life.  A popular podcast that discusses philosophy.  In this podcast, they examine some of the major themes in "Discipline and Punish."  It is not a scholarly resource.  However, if one was doing research on "Discipline and Punish" and needed to broaden their understanding of it, then this may be a suitable place to do that.

4) This is a lecture by Rick Roderick.  He lectures on Foucault's works and ideas.  Roderick presents this lecture as a kind of overview of Foucault's "Discipline and Punish." Readers of all levels could benefit from this.

5) These two lectures are by Professor John Frow.  He provides and overview of Foucault's work and life.  He also discusses a few works by Foucault including "Discipline and Punish."

Saturday, May 28, 2016

Civilization and Its Discontents By Sigmund Freud

Primary Sources:

1) Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Trans. James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton
& Company, 1961. Print.

2) Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Trans. David McLintock. London: Penguin Publishing, 2002. Print.

***Click here to to go to purchase this book

3) Freud, Sigmund. The Freud Reader. Ed. Peter Gay. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989. Print.

***Click here to go to to purchase this book.

Note: this is a collection of works by Freud which has been compiled together.  Although "Civilization and Its Discontents" are in it, there are also many other relevant works by Feud.  We recommend this to anyone who is looking to study Freud intensely. 

Secondary Sources:


1) Bauman, Zygmunt. Postmodernity and Its Discontents. New York; New York University Press, 1997. Print.

Note: this book takes Freud's ideas in "Civilization and Its Discontents" and applies them to a postmodern society.

Journal Articles:

1) Shapiro, Barry. "Civilization and Its Discontents." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 32.6 (2012): 559-569. Web.

2) Robert, Paul A. "Civilization and Its Discontents in Anthropological Perspective, Eight Decades On." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 32.6 (2012): 582-595. Web.

3) Zvi, Lothane. "Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents and Related Works: A Reappraisal." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 32.6 (2012): 524-542. Web.

4) Raspa, Richard. Civilization and Its Discontents in the 21st century: Freud, Shakespeare, and Romantic Love." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 32.6 (2012): 596-606. Web.

5) Hollan, Douglas. "Cultures and Their Discontents: On the Cultural Mediation of Shame and Guilt." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 32.6 (2012): 570-581. Web.

6) Young, Allan. "Individualism and Its Discontents." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 21.4 (2014): 361-362. Web.

7) Capps, Donald, and Carlin, Nathan. "Human Chances for Happiness: A review of Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents." Pastoral Psychology 62.3 (2013): 271-289. Web.

8) Carveth, Donald. "Freud's and Our Paranoid Myth of "The Beast." Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis 20.1 (2012): 153-157. Web.


1) This lecture is given by Christina Hendricks.  She provides a valuable lecture of what Freud was doing in Civilization and Its Discontents.  People of all levels should find this useful.

2) Valuable introductory lecture by YaleCourses.  It does not examine "Civilization and Its Discontents" in much depth but is valuable for one who is becoming familiar with Freud and his works.

3) This is a philosophy podcast called "The partially examined life."  In this episode, they discuss Freud's "Civilization and Its Discontents" in an introductory manner.  Someone who is beginning their studies in Freud will find this useful.

Friday, May 27, 2016

Human, All Too Human By Friedrich Nietzsche

Our research on this book has left us to believe that there is not a lot of substantial secondary literature on it.  There are quite a few articles and books out there that mention "Human, All Too Human," however, these mentionings are passing thoughts and/or mere lip service.  We do not think it is appropriate to list those sources because they simply do not examine in any kind of depth the ideas contained in this book.  In any event, we have listed what we found.  Hopefully, somebody can come along and point us in the direction of where we can find and review other secondary sources that do more than give it a passing glance.

Primary Sources:
1) Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human. Trans. R.J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

2) Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, Human Too Human. Trans. Marion Faber and Stephen Lehmann. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, Print. 

***Click here to go to to purchase this book

Note: We highly recommend reading the section of this book titled "Beginning to Be Nietzsche" by
Arthur Danto because he explains how Nietzsche became a philosopher while writing "Human, All Too Human."

3) Nietzsche, Friedrich. "Human, All Too Human." Trans. Alexander Harvey. Project Gutenberg. Charles H. Kerr & Company, 1908. Web.

***Click here to go to Project Gutenberg for a free copy of this book

Secondary Sources:


1) Franco, Paul. Nietzsche's Enlightenment: The Free-Spirit Trilogy of the Middle Period. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. Print.

Journal Articles:

1) Schacht, Richard. "Nietzsche's Naturalism." The Journal of Nietzsche Studies 43.2 (2012): 185-212. Web.

***This article is not exclusively about "Human, All Too Human; however, it does discuss how Nietzsche conceived of himself as a naturalistic thinker which takes up a large part of "Human, All Too Human."

2) Fanco, Paul. "Nietzsche's Human, All Too Human and the Problem of Culture." The Review of Politics 69 (2007): 215-243. Web.

3) Elgat, Guy. "Nietzsche's Critique of Pure Altruism -- Developing an Argument from Human, All Too Human." Inquiry 58.3 (2015): 308-326. Web.


1) Human, All Too Human: BBC Documentary.  This is a documentary about Nietzsche's life.  It is not a scholarly examination of the book.  However, because the video bears the same name as the book, we thought we would include it.

Thursday, May 26, 2016

Metaphysics By Aristotle

Primary Sources:

1) Aristotle. Metaphysics. Trans. Joe Sachs. Santa Fe: Green Lion Press, 1999. Print.

2) Aristotle. "Metaphysics." Greek Philosophy Thales to Aristotle. Ed. Reginald E. Allen. New York: The Free Press, 1991. 307-383. Print.

Note: This book is an anthology.  It does not have the "Metaphysics" in its entirety.  However, this book is an excellent resource for introductory purposes.

3) Aristotle. Metaphysics. Trans. Richard Hope. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960. Print.

4) Aristotle. Metaphysics. Trans. Hugh Lawson-Tancred. London: Penguin Group, 1999. Print.

***Click to go to to purchase this book

5) LibriVox has an audiobook of Aristotle's "Metaphysics," which can be found by following the link directly below:

***Click here to go to LibriVox for a free audio recording of Aristotle's Metaphysics

Note: the content on LibriVox is in the public domain in the USA.  Check you local laws before downloading.

Secondary Sources:


1) Anagnostopoulos, Georgios., ed. A Companion to Aristotle. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2013. Print.

Note: This is an anthology.  It is not entirely dedicated to Aristotle's "Metaphysics."  Part III of the book is dedicated to Aristotle's theoretical knowledge, which includes 7 essays dedicated to examining Aristotle's "Metaphysics."  The reason we cite the entire book is because it a valuable resource for research on all things Aristotle.

2)  Barnes, Jonathan., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.

Note: This is also an anthology.  It is not dedicated entirely to Aristotle's "Metaphysics."  Pages 66-108 are dedicated to discussing it, however.  Despite it not being entirely dedicated to Aristotle's "Metaphysics," it is still a valuable resource for conducting research.

3) Politis, Vasilis. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Aristotle and the Metaphysics. London: Routledge, 2004. Print.

We usually list valuable and relevant journal articles and other books at this point.  However, the Stanford Encyclopedia has already put together an extensive compilation of primary and secondary sources specifically for Aristotle's "Metaphysics."  So, we highly recommend anybody doing research on Aristotle's "Metaphysics" to go HERE (link takes you to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy SEP) to get a bird's eye view of the literature.  The sources herein, primary and secondary, are enough to get one started but the SEP should not be avoided.


1) These two videos are by Dr. Arthur F. Holmes of Wheaton College.  The lectures are good for beginners and intermediate level students.  Undergraduates and graduate students will find these useful.  They are, however, probably not best suited for those who already have a substantial background in this field.  Nonetheless, they are valuable resources for research.

2) Dr. Sadler provides an introduction to Aristotle's "Metaphysics."  This is a purely introductory lecture.  A very good lecture but focused on familiarizing beginners with "Metaphysics."

3) These two videos are also by Dr. Sadler and they are also focused on providing beginners with an introduction to Aristotle's "Metaphysics."  As a matter of fact, these two videos only cover Book 1 in the "Metaphysics."  These videos, however, are valuable for doing research.